JOB ANALYSISUnderstanding what’s your/ employee job about
Job analysis is the process of aggregating or gathering the information of a particular job. A job analysis is the method used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. It is the first step of focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. By understanding the priorities in job/ role, and what constitutes success within it, employee can focus on role objective and maximize work efficiency on tasks as much as possible.
This helps to get the greatest return from the work employee do, and keep his/her workload under control. The key to a successful job analysis is considered on the basis of collection of a large amount of data about a particular job/ role.
The data collected should include how to perform the job, skills needed to perform the job, and the outcome of the job. The data collected during a job analysis is typically used to make improvements in job outcome. In addition, the overall work environment is usually studied to assess the impact it may have on the job and the employee’s performance of the job.
The process of job analysis also has its own constraints. So, let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of job analysis process at length:
Training Need Identification
|Provides First Hand Job-Related Information||Time Consuming|
|Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit||Involves Personal Biasness: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes|
|Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices||Source of Data is Extremely Small|
|Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes||Involves Lots of Human Efforts:|
|Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs||Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills|
|Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job||Mental Abilities Can not be Directly Observed|
Purpose of job analysis
The process of job analysis is the major input for forecasting human resources requirements, job modification, and job evaluation, determination of proper compensation and writing of job description.
- Human resources planning: it estimates the future manpower requirements in he light of job description and job specification.
- Validation of hiring procedure: with eh help of job analysis; we can have specific requirements of each job, i.e. skill, knowledge, aptitude which provides promotions.
- Training and development: it supports to determine the contents of study of subject matter of the training, period of training, so every training programme is designed on the basis of training needs
- Job evaluation: on the basis of job factors job evaluation process is done.
- Compensation and benefits administration: job evaluation is the base of compensation. The jobs enjoying higher grading will be given higher compensation and vice versa
- Career development: It helps the firm to chart channels of promotion and provides to employee with data concerning opportunities and requirements for career within the organization
- Performance rating: it is one of the major tools to evaluate the performance rating. In other words, it helps to quantify the qualitative data of performance management
Techniques of job analysis
The determination of job tasks, skills, and abilities necessary for successful performance and the responsibilities inherent in the job is collected through survey and data collection. The following four techniques are used in data collection:
1. Personal observation method
Observation methods consist of direct observation, work methods analysis, technique of critical incident. An analyst must have the knowledge of different jobs, their nature, hazards etc. He observes by his own knowledge and experience. Direct observation is more important and useful to collect the information of physical ability and nature of job. It follows through methods mentioned below
Work method analysis
Critical incident technique
2. Questioner technique.
This is most popular and authentic technique of extraditing the data for job analysis. In fact, it enables to quantify the qualitative data. Questionnaire methods include techniques as follows:
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ Model)
Functional Job Analysis (FJA Model)
Work profiling system
Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ Model)
3. Log records and narratives
A record of major duties performed, marking the time when each task started and finished. But this single technique may not be sufficient because it cannot provide the data of relationship with superior, raw material and equipment used and working conditions.
4. Technical conference
This tool is of great usefulness in analyzing jobs based on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs will implement sessions of brainstorming to discover elements of jobs. In this method, SMEs can apply a full mix of all methods of job analysis
5. Examining manuals / reference material
In analyzing jobs, the analysts use manuals/ or materials of reference including quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms, job description
6. Checklist and rating scale
In this method, jobs are analyzed by using a list keeping track of such job elements. Many questions can be raised, such as working purposes, key roles and responsibilities, organization; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions.
7. Job Scan
This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model. However, it does not discuss the individual competencies such as intellect, experience or physical and emotional characteristics of an individual required to perform a specific job.